我们需要戏剧吗?我们要它有何用?


今天是复活节,同时也是国际戏剧日。自从1962年开始,国际戏剧协会(International Theatre Institute, ITI)将每年3月27日定为世界戏剧日,每年都邀请以为世界著名的戏剧工作者发表一篇宣言,宣言将被翻译成各国语言发布出来,也欢迎全世界的戏剧工作者朗读。今年被邀请的是著名俄罗斯戏剧导演安纳托利·瓦西里耶夫(Anatoli Vassiliev),以下是他所发表的宣言。(转载自剧场摩天轮:drama_luan )



2016年世界戏剧日宣言



我们需要戏剧吗?


众多对戏剧失望的从业者以及无数对戏剧厌倦的人扪心自问。


我们要它做何用?


当生活中真正的悲剧在各个国家和城市广场上演时,舞台上的戏剧显得不值一提。


戏剧对我们意味着什么?


剧院大厅里镀金的包厢和楼座,天鹅绒扶手椅,肮脏的侧台,演员靓丽的嗓音,或者正相反,是看起来截然不同的东西:沾着泥土和血迹的黑匣子,里面还有一堆狂暴的裸体。


戏剧能告诉我们什么?


一切!


戏剧能告诉我们一切!


  

  安纳托利·瓦西里耶夫作品《安菲特律翁》

  

众神如何在天堂栖居,囚犯如何在被人遗忘的地洞中受苦,以及激情如何使人振奋,爱情如何导致毁灭,好人如何被孤立,欺骗如何当道,有人享受高级公寓而孩子们如何在难民营里凋零,以及最终他们如何都只是一捧黄土,以及,我们是如何日复一日被迫与我们爱的人分离——戏剧能告诉我们一切。


戏剧生就如此,也永不会变。


而现在,在过去的五十到七十年间,戏剧尤为必要。纵观所有的公共艺术,只有戏剧在给我们一种口口相传的言语,一种眼神与眼神的凝视,一个用手势、用肢体传达的姿态。它发生在人与人之间,不需要任何媒介——它是光最透明的一面,它不来自东、南、西、北任何一个方向——不,它就是光的本源,从四面八方发出光亮。任何人都能立即识别它,不管对它敌对或友好。


而且,我们需要不同的戏剧,我们需要多种多样的戏剧。


  安纳托利·瓦西里耶夫导演的玛格丽特·杜拉斯作品《音乐之二》


我依然认为,在所有可能的戏剧形式和形态中,古老的戏剧形式将被证明是当今最需要的。不应该人为地把宗教仪式性的戏剧和“文明”国家的戏剧相对立。世俗文化日渐式微,所谓的“文化信息”逐渐取代并排挤简单的实体,也断了我们终有一天见到它们的希望。


但是现在我能清晰地看到,戏剧正在敞开大门。所有人等,均可入内!


  安纳托利·瓦西里耶夫作品《莫扎特和萨列里》


让电器和电脑见鬼去吧,马上去剧院,把一排排的座位全占满,倾听那台词,看那鲜活的形象——在你面前的是戏剧,不要忽视它,不要放弃参与其中的机会——这或许是我们空虚而匆忙的生活中最珍贵的机会。


我们需要多种多样的戏剧。


只有一种戏剧任何人都不会要——我指的是政治游戏的戏剧,政治诡计的戏剧,政客的戏剧,无用的政治戏剧。我们绝对不要每天都生活在恐怖中的戏剧——不论个人还是集体;我们也绝对不要在首都或任何一个城市看街头和广场满是死尸与鲜血的戏剧,这宗教组织或种族组织冲突的假戏。


中文官方翻译:Liu Wei

翻译润色:程时宇


  安纳托利·瓦西里耶夫和格洛托夫斯基


以下为英文版


World Theater Day Message 2016



Do we need theatre?


That is the question thousands of professionals disappointed in theatre and millions of people who are tired of it are asking themselves.


What do we need it for?


In those years when the scene is so insignificant in comparison with the city squares and state lands, where the authentic tragedies of real life are being played.


What is it to us?


Gold-plated galleries and balconies in the theatre halls, velvet armchairs, dirty stage wings, well-polished actors' voices, - or vice versa, something that might look apparently different: black boxes, stained with mud and blood, with a bunch of rabid naked bodies inside.


What is it able to tell us?


Everything!


Theatre can tell us everything.


How the gods dwell in heaven, and how prisoners languish in forgotten caves underground, and how passion can elevate us, and how love can ruin, and how no-one needs a good person in this world, and how deception reigns, and how people live in apartments, while children wither in refugee camps, and how they all have to return back to the desert, and how day after day we are forced to part with our beloveds, - theatre can tell everything.


The theatre has always been and it will remain forever.


And now, in those last fifty or seventy years, it is particularly necessary. Because if you take a look at all the public arts, you can immediately see that only theatre is giving us - a word from mouth to mouth, a glance from eye to eye, a gesture from hand to hand, and from body to body. It does not need any intermediary to work among human  beings - it constitutes the most transparent side of light, it does not belong to either south, or north, or east, or west -  oh no, it is the essence of light itself, shining from all four corners of the world, immediately recognizable by any person, whether hostile or friendly towards it.


And we need theatre that always remains different, we need theatre of many different kinds.


Still, I think that among all possible forms and shapes of theatre its archaic forms will now prove to be mostly in demand. Theatre of ritual forms should not be artificially opposed to that of “civilized” nations. Secular culture is now being more and more emasculated, so-called "cultural information" gradually replaces and pushes out simple entities, as well as our hope of eventually meeting them one day.


But I can see it clearly now: theatre is opening its doors widely. Free admission for all and everybody.


To hell with gadgets and computers - just go to the theatre, occupy whole rows in the stalls and in the galleries, listen to the word and look at living images! - it is theatre in front of you, do not neglect it and do not miss a chance to participate in it - perhaps the most precious chance we share in our vain and hurried lives.


We need every kind of theatre.


There is only one theatre which is surely not needed by anyone - I mean a theatre of political games, a theatre of a political "mousetraps", a theatre of politicians, a futile theatre of politics. What we certainly do not need is a theatre of daily terror - whether individual or collective, what we do not need is the theatre of corpses and blood on the streets and squares, in the capitals or in the provinces, a phony theatre of clashes between religions or ethnic groups...


原文为俄罗斯文,英文译者:Natalia Isaeva



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